Scientific works of KubSTUIssues → № 3, 2021/May

Table of contents for # 3, 2021/May

Construction and Architecture

Compression studies of clay soils constantly increasing pressure

V.V. Denisenko, A.V. Osennyaya, A.P. Pinchuk, A.A. Kolomytsev

The tests of samples of soils of undisturbed structure were carried out with a constantly increasing pressure at a rate that ensures the consolidation of the samples during loading and set depending on the physical properties of the soil, which confirmed the effect of a stepwise change in deformation during loading. From the graphs of the stepwise change in the rate of axial deformation of the samples, it is possible to determine the structural strength of the soil, the dimensions of the inhomogeneities (blocks) of the soil, the value of their resistance to external load, the value of the elastic and inelastic components at each step of deformation. The data from soil tests with constantly increasing pressure make it possible to build a model of the deformation of the soil microstructure and apply it to the calculations of the deformations of a soil body from the same soil, for example, the base of the foundation of a structure or a stamp.

Keywords: soil sample, loading rate, constantly increasing pressure, deformation rate, consolidation.
1 MB

Technologies for application of bioclimatic strategies for building design

G.V. Mikheev, E.S. Varich, G.A. Badikyan

Weather phenomena and various climatic conditions can seriously affect residential real estate, both during the construction period and during the operation in general, while insufficient attention is paid to the technologies of bioclimatic strategies in design and construction. Most development projects are limited to standard projects and characteristics in the design and construction of residential real estate. The choice towards standard projects is associated with the lack of documents, standards and various norms that could take into account the regional, spatial and climatic conditions and parameters of the territory. The presented circumstances predetermine the need to study technologies for the application of bioclimatic strategies in the design and construction of buildings in various territories. The results of the study will improve the quality of design solutions, as well as increase the efficiency of construction and operation of future real estate objects in the context of various natural and climatic phenomena and territorial and spatial features. When conducting a study of natural and climatic phenomena and territorial and spatial features of the area of future development, international databases and electronic applications for the study of climate were taken into account. Methods and scientific results of both domestic and foreign scientists and practitioners are considered. The study examines ways of constructing a bioclimatic strategy for various natural and climatic phenomena and territorial and spatial features. Taking into account the identified parametric characteristics, it is proposed to introduce the technology of bioclimatic strategies for the design of buildings in conditions of various natural and climatic phenomena and territorial and spatial features. The strategies presented are aimed at effectively maintaining thermal comfort and reducing energy consumption in the property during its further operation. The introduction of technologies for bioclimatic strategies for the design of buildings, their construction and operation will improve the indicators of the quality of life of future consumers of the real estate object, balance the parameters and characteristics of the operation of the real estate object in the conditions of various natural and climatic phenomena and territorial and spatial features of the region.

Keywords: bioclimatic strategies, energy saving, energy efficient buildings, sustainable architecture, microclimate, favorable living conditions.
404 kB

Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Management

Features of development of the Russian market of transportation and logistics services

V.A. Goryun, T.V. Konovalova

The importance of the market for transport and logistics services is associated with its purpose to effectively meet the growing needs of customers for high-quality transport and logistics services at an optimal level of costs. The aim of the study is to study the features of the development of the Russian market of transport and logistics services in order to formulate directions for increasing its efficiency. Why the article has solved the problems: the market features are highlighted: great importance for the Russian economy, an increase in freight turnover and freight traffic, an increase in the length of communication routes, differentiation by regions of Russia, a reduction in the contribution to added value; the factors influencing the functioning of the market are determined. Based on the results obtained, promising directions for its improvement were formulated on the example of the European market of transport and logistics services: electronic freight exchanges, digitalization of management of logistics functions, development of contract logistics.

Keywords: logistics, gross value added, cargo turnover, cargo transportation, length of communication routes, digitalization.
966 kB

On the question of methods for generating, classifying, and recognizing three-dimensional images

D.A. Gura, R.A. Dyachenko, N.I. Khusht

Issues related to the generation, classification, clustering and processing of three-dimensional images in the modern era of the transition of technological and economic systems to the digital space are very relevant and attractive from a scientific point of view, the vector of research. This article discusses some aspects of working with three-dimensional images related to two large groups, namely, research in the field of graphic image modeling and research in the field of processing and analysis of three-dimensional images represented as a set of three-dimensional data, with a shift in the focus of detail to the last group of studies.

Keywords: three-dimensional images, classification, segmentation, clustering, recognition, generation of three-dimensional images, graphical modeling, plan and altitude coordinates, machine learning methods, deep learning methods.
905 kB

Process of registration of properties in the form of IDEF0 model

D.A. Gura, I.G. Markovskii, N.I. Khusht

This paper considers the process of state registration of rights to real estate, presented in the form of the IDEF0 model. Its practical applicability and the effects obtained from representing an organization or a process as a system are evaluated. The main features of this methodology are outlined. The functional model of the “black box”, which describes the process of state registration of rights, and IDEF0 – diagram of the process of document flow in the body of registration of rights are presented. Based on the results of the work, conclusions were drawn about its possible ways of application.

Keywords: IDEF0 model, state registration of rights, system analysis, business process modeling methodology, complex institution model.
848 kB

Analysis of the impact of road transport emissions into the atmosphere on the example of Russia

I.N. Kotenkova

In today’s highly competitive environment, the country’s environmental issues come first. There is an increase in air pollution by motor vehicles, due to the growth of road transport and the fleet of cars. There is no significant transition to environmentally friendly transport. Exposure to high levels of CO, PM10, SOx, and other substances in water, air, and soil causes more than 104,000 premature deaths per year and economic damage in excess of 8% of GDP.

Keywords: Green logistics, ecology, conservation, supply chains, global warming, best available technology.
652 kB

Russia’s “Green transformation” as part of the global decarbonisation trend

D.Yu. Lotnikova

The planned introduction of EU border carbon barriers. The risks of weakening the competitiveness of national producers in comparison with producers of products from countries with relatively more relaxed climate legislation are pushing the country’s leadership to increasingly discuss the possibility of introducing border carbon barriers aimed at protecting the competitiveness of national businesses. Among the largest countries, Russia ranks first in terms of specific greenhouse gas emissions as part of exported products.

Keywords: ecology, automobile and transport complex, carbon barriers, green transformation.
720 kB

Difficulties and prospects of reducing emissions of dangerous pollutants

V.V. Nagorny

One of the main pollutants (in addition to industry, transport, energy and utilities) of the urban environment is the automobile and road complex (ADC). The automobile and road complex includes vehicles (cars and trucks, buses), road infrastructure, street network, road construction equipment, service enterprises, engineering equipment of streets and roads for traffic management. The national project “Ecology” provides for: elimination of the most dangerous objects of accumulated environmental damage and environmental improvement of water bodies; reduction of emissions of dangerous pollutants that have the greatest negative impact on the environment and human health by half.

Keywords: automobile and road complex, ecology, conservation, supply chains, global warming, decarbonization.
804 kB

Methodology for the development of the formation and placement of transport hubs

T.V. Konovalova, S.L. Nadiryan

In this article, the authors consider the development of the formation and placement of transport hubs. The issues of developing the formation and placement of transport hubs are very relevant. In Krasnodar, there is no system for the formation of TPUs, all the TPUs discussed in the article were formed historically in the process of the development of the city, and later in the urban agglomeration. In modern society, TPUs are an integral part of the transport infrastructure of the city, the main task of which is the comfortable movement of passengers.

Keywords: automobile transport, economy, automobile and transport complex, logistics, transport and transfer hubs, transport system, urban agglomeration.
2 MB

Problems of cadastral accounting and registration of rights to real estate objects

A.V. Osennyaya, B.A. Hahuk, S.V. Samarin, D.A. Bespyatchuk, A.S. Shumsky

The state cadastral registration of real estate objects and the state registration of rights to them are among the most important legal procedures, since the quality of cadastral registration and registration of rights depends on the real estate market of any country. There is a general procedure for conducting cadastral registration and / or registration of rights, which is regulated by 218-FZ. But, like any process, it has a number of shortcomings and shortcomings both from the legislative and technological side of the implementation of the process of state cadastral registration and/or state registration of rights at all stages of processing applications. To identify the problems of cadastral registration and registration of rights to real estate objects and find a way to solve them, it is necessary to analyze the process of cadastral registration and registration of rights at all its stages.

Keywords: cadastral registration, real estate object, registration of rights, Rosreestr, authority for registration of rights.
672 kB

Legislative regulation of redevelopment of residential and non-residential premises

B.A. Khakhuk, A.A. Kushu, E.I. Fomina, A.A. Tokovoy

The article contains an analysis of legislative and regulatory documents in the field of redevelopment of residential and non-residential detached buildings, as well as non-residential premises located inside residential buildings. The procedure of redevelopment is considered, the existing problems and shortcomings of the system in modern conditions are revealed. It is concluded that there is a need to improve the legislation in this area, both at the national and regional levels; specification of the conceptual apparatus and terminology, as well as the development of a clear and understandable algorithm for the redevelopment of capital construction projects.

Keywords: redevelopment, reconstruction, capital construction object, technical plan, unified state register of real estate.
644 kB

Information and didactic support of distance education

M.V. Avdzhyan, E.A. Shumkov

The development of distance learning is an actual trend of changes in educational systems. Of course, the coronavirus pandemic played into the hands of the launch of a massive distance learning process, but the process itself has been developing for a long time. The article discusses the identified advantages and disadvantages of existing methods of distance learning, as well as the most popular platforms for distance education and video conferencing systems.

Keywords: distance learning, distance education, e-learning, information and educational environment, virtual environment.
484 kB

Algorithm of the interactive computer testing program “Basic types”

V.V. Stepanov, V.A. Kossoy, V.A. Nefedovsky, M.V. Stepanova

Currently, much attention is paid to the problems of testing students ‘ knowledge, especially at the time of the transition to remote training of students, when there was a shortage of not only electronic textbooks, but also electronic textbooks. In addition, there was a difficulty in assessing the level of assimilation of the acquired amount of knowledge in each of the sections of the studied discipline. The article describes the algorithm of the interactive computer testing program “ Types of basic “in the discipline “Engineering Graphics”, developed on the basis of flash technologies, which allows you to solve several tasks at once – to provide and speed up the process of submitting new educational material, to develop the intellectual and creative abilities of students, spatial thinking, to ensure maximum involvement of students in the educational process, including communication skills and visual memory. All of the above quality characteristics are provided by the” stuffing “ of the test, which lie inside the frames of the development program, and the testers control only the frames and their display. Interactivity is provided by the built – in tools of the Action Script language, the program code of which is relatively small, compared to similar programs in other environments.

Keywords: information technologies, interactivity; testing computer program; algorithm; flash technologies; engineering graphics; types.
663 kB

Electrical engineering

Device for continuous control of transient thermal processes of dry transformers

A.E. Starcev, S.V. Poletaev, P.S. Shichev

The main reason for the decommissioning of dry transformers is the violation of cast insulation when it overheats relative to the permissible value. Built-in protections do not allow monitoring the temperature of the hottest point of the insulation. The paper presents the results of the development of a technical solution for real-time monitoring of the hottest point of the transformer insulation. The single-mass thermal model of the transformer has been refined, which makes it possible to more adequately determine the dynamics and steady-state modes of its heating. Simulation modeling of thermal processes in a transformer has been carried out, confirming the possibility of using a single-mass model to develop a technical solution for controlling the insulation temperature from the standpoint of simplicity of technical implementation and achieving the necessary accuracy in predicting overheating by the value of the current in the winding phase. A functional diagram of a device for monitoring transformer insulation overheating has been developed, which makes it possible to cut off unacceptable thermal conditions with the possibility of adjusting settings based on the results of instrumental examinations of the transformer.

Keywords: heating of windings, transformer protection, overheating temperature, continuous condition monitoring.
606 kB

Universal mathematical model of a synchronous machine in stator phase coordinates

A.M. Kvon, I.N. Avtaykin, I.A. Slepokurov, A.S. Surkov

Synchronous machines, as a rule, are used for the electric drive of critical units, the failure of which leads to large economic losses. For this reason, trouble-free operation is a prerequisite for synchronous machines. One way to improve reliability is to identify problems and classify them in a timely manner. Creating mathematical models of synchronous machines allows you to solve this problem. The authors used methods of mathematical modeling based on schemes with concentrated parameters, the theory of state variables, methods of mathematical programming and numerical methods of calculation using applied computer programs. In the course of the work, a universal substitution scheme for a single-pole synchronous machine in the phase coordinates of the stator was created, and the equations of the mathematical model were compiled in differential form with a transition to the matrix form of the record. The dependences of the stator currents in a function of time are obtained by solving the system in matrix form using applied computer programs. The obtained dependencies are analyzed. The developed model makes it possible to identify different types of stator winding closures at different stages of development.

Keywords: a single-pole synchronous machine, a universal mathematical model, inter-turn closures, information signs of closures.
1 MB
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