Scientific works of KubSTUIssues → № 6, 2020/September

Table of contents for # 6, 2020/September

Technical Science

Automation of statistical analysis of efficiency factors of state support for agriculture in Python

V.V. Demichev, A.A. Nestratova
Annotation

The purpose of this article is to automate key fragments of the correlation-regression analysis of the effectiveness of state support for agriculture in the Russian Federation, as well as to identify key factors in the effectiveness of subsidizing agriculture in Russia. The high-level programming language Python was chosen as the implementation tool. As a result of constructing a matrix of correlation coefficients and regression models, the key dependencies between the factorial and effective indicators of the effectiveness of state support for agriculture were identified.

Keywords: automation, Python, subsidies, efficiency, agriculture, correlation and regression analysis.
310 kB

Automation of statistical data analysis of the crop production industry of an agricultural enterprise

V.V. Demichev, N.P. Drozdov
Annotation

Digital transformation requires a transition from automation of individual processes to full automation, robotization of both technological, economic and analytical processes. In this regard, the stated topic of the article is particularly significant and relevant. The purpose of this work is to describe the stages and develop an automated information system (AIS) in the form of a user interface (application) for statistical analysis of data on crop production of agricultural enterprises. The main methods used in the study for statistical analysis of data on crop production of agricultural enterprises are methods of statistical-economic and econometric analysis.

Keywords: automation; automated information system; database; Microsoft Access; SQL; statistical data analysis; crop production.
897 kB

Study of the influence of the geometry of the black-white mark on the identification of its center in the field conditions

N.A. Dyakova, G.G. Shevchenko, D.A. Gura
Annotation

Terrestrial laser scanning is gaining in popularity every day and is becoming an indispensable component of many aspects of human activity. Terrestrial laser scanners have sophisticated software that can measure the 3D coordinates of a huge number of points in a short period. To determine the spatial position and coverage of the area of interest on one scan, special marks are placed around the scanner. This article discusses the process of recognition of the center of black-and-white marks by the Leica ScanStation C10 ground laser scanner during field work. An experiment was carried out during which black-and-white stamps were prepared that did not have a standard appearance and size. According to the results of the experiment, some dependences of the recognition of the center of a black-and-white mark by the ground laser scanner Leica ScanStation C10 on its characteristics were revealed.

Keywords: ground laser scanning, special brands, point clouds, scanning, scanner, Leica ScanStation С10.
591 kB

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the method of obtaining water by condensation of moisture from the air in the conditions of the Crimean peninsula

T.A. Leonova, E.V. Kocharyan
Annotation

The article discusses methods for solving the problem in the field of water supply to the Crimean peninsula. The issue of a shortage of fresh water reserves in this region of the Russian Federation is especially relevant and requires urgent measures, including the development of new water supply schemes. The paper considers alternative sources of water supply by desalination of seawater, based on the principle of membrane and evaporation technologies, implemented on the basis of renewable resources and the use of thermal energy from CHPPs. A description of the method for obtaining water by condensation of moisture from the air in a buried pipeline and the results of the dependence of the required length of the pipeline and the resulting condensate on the air flow rate at the inlet to the system are given. An assessment of the efficiency of using the condensation method in the conditions of the Crimea peninsula is presented.

Keywords: water supply system, resource use, groundwater, water treatment, desalination, condensation.
349 kB

Screening of chemical compounds, suitable polymers for activation

V.V. Litvyak, I.S. Usachev
Annotation

It was established that in order to obtain new types of biodegradable polymer materials based on polyolefins and starch, it is necessary to additionally introduce a functionalized polymer, which allows combining a hydrophobic polyolefin with hydrophilic starch. Important criteria for organic substances grafted onto a polyolefin are: affordability, nontoxicity, non-volatility, polymerization ability (presence of double bonds), and molecule size. As a result of the work done, an algorithm for screening organic substances suitable for the functionalization of polyolefins was developed. A subset of chemical compounds has been formed from the PubChem chemical information database that meets the criteria selected for the search for a candidate compound for use as biodegradable additives to polymers. The selected chemical compounds contain polar groups (sulfonate, carboxyl) with a large dipole moment and the ability to participate in the formation of hydrogen bonds. The range of values of the separation coefficient between the hydrophobic solvent and water used in the screening determined the presence of hydrophobic groups in the compounds and, at the same time, the potential for dissolution in water. The work performed constitutes the basis for experimental research on testing the stimulation of biodegradation of polymeric materials by microorganisms.

Keywords: functionalized polymer, biodegradation, biodegradable polymer material, chemical information bases, algorithm.
641 kB

Software development according to the decryption information

A.D. Titov, A.N. Losev
Annotation

The purpose of this work is to develop software for encryption and decryption of confidential information. This article discusses the developed software, which consists of four modules for decrypting a certain type of cipher. The relevance of developing software for encrypting and decrypting information is to hide it from unauthorized persons, while providing authorized users with access to it. Encryption mainly serves to protect the confidentiality of information transmitted from person to person. The practical significance of the work is that the developed software can significantly increase the speed of the decryption process of the ciphers under consideration.

Keywords: simplest, wildcard, block, stream, cipher, software, C++, programming.
2 MB

Automatization of analysis international environmental and economic systems based on machine learning technology

A.E. Ulyankin
Annotation

The acute issue of the relationship between the natural environment and the economy, namely progress in economic development due to environmental regression, was ignored by people until recently. On the one hand, the economy must develop, however on the other hand, this development adversely affects the state of the surrounding nature. As a result, there is a new object for research – ecological and economic systems. Analytical tools for the analysis of ecological and economic systems (EES) do not fully reflect the relationship between environmental and economic factors, so it is necessary to improve the methods and techniques of EES research, as well as new automated approaches to analysis. As a result, an information system for analyzing international environmental and economic systems using machine learning technology was developed.

Keywords: ecological and economic system (EES), information system, machine learning, cluster analysis.
1 MB

Socio-economic, Social and Humanitarian Sciences

The national project “Ecology” as a tool for countering threats to the economic security of the Russian Federation

Yu.S. Nishchuk
Annotation

Increasing the economic security of the Russian Federation is an important factor of strategic importance for the country. The purpose of this work is to study the national project of the Russian Federation “Ecology” from the point of view of its ability to influence the improvement of the country’s economic security. The tasks of the work are to identify the essence of economic security, to study the national project “Ecology”. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the activities carried out within the framework of the “Ecology” project contribute to increasing the economic security of the Russian Federation, eliminating some challenges and threats. However, the economic security strategy specifies such a threat “as an increase in costs to ensure environmental standards of production and consumption”, but the national project “Ecology” does not provide for measures to eliminate this threat. It is proposed to create a working group within the framework of the project, which would deal with this issue.

Keywords: economic security, strategy, national project, ecology, socio-economic growth, national economy.
658 kB

Formation of artistic presentations of citizens of the Irkutsk province at the beginning of the XX century: on historical information A.N. Turunova (1893-1954)

V.V. Tkachev
Annotation

The article discusses the scientific works of A.N. Turunov on the history of Siberia and the formation of artistic life in the Irkutsk province at the beginning of the 20th century. The analysis of historical facts about the development of ideas of city residents about art is carried out. The historian collects unique information about the everyday life of the citizens of Siberia. He notes the peculiarities of the design of houses and determines the place of art objects in people’s lives. The article examines the history of the cultural development of the cities of the Irkutsk province at the beginning of the XX century. The activity of artists in cultural, educational, informational processes is presented. The analysis of historical literature is carried out and the degree of study of the topic is presented.

Keywords: history of Siberia, Eastern Siberia, artistic life, urban environment, information space, history of Irkutsk.
644 kB

Analysis of financial availability indicators in the context of the un sustainable Development Goals

M.K. Tretyakova
Annotation

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), formed by the UN, are a modern benchmark in the development of financial and monetary policy of the state. The goals and corresponding objectives of sustainable development imply institutional and instrumental provision of financial services to the population and organizations, which contributes to economic growth. The article analyzes the established indicators of financial inclusion in Russia. The dynamics of the number of branches and ATMs per 100,000 people and the share of the adult population with bank accounts are analyzed. Conclusions are made about a sufficiently high level of values of the established indicators, while their negative dynamics is noted in the last two years. One of the reasons for the decline in indicators is the development of remote banking technologies. The crisis amid a pandemic and a decrease in household incomes negatively affect the number of open accounts. The conclusion is made about the need to stimulate the country’s innovative development in order to achieve the SDG indicators.

Keywords: socio-economic policy, monetary policy, sustainable development goals, financial affordability.
687 kB

Alternative approach to the transition to a unified real estate taxation

V.E. Titova, V.A. Shishkina
Annotation

The issues of taxation of real estate throughout the entire existence of the state have not lost their relevance. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the system of property taxes has been undergoing changes, adjusting to the modern requirements of the economy, scientific and technological progress, and its main task is to comply with the interests of the owner and the state. One of the directions of reforming the existing system of real estate taxation is the transition to a single taxation. Disputes that periodically arise in the course of discussions of such a transition, related to the determination of the taxable base, the administration of such a tax and the search for a model by which the single tax will be calculated, have been going on for 20 years. An unambiguous answer to these questions has not yet been found, but the search for a universal model based on which conditions for fair and efficient taxation could be created continues to this day. In this article, the authors consider one of the options for a possible resolution of the issue of the transition to a unified taxation of real estate, drawing conclusions about the effectiveness of the implementation of such a tax calculation system.

Keywords: real estate taxation, unified real estate taxation, cadastral valuation of real estate objects, tax base.
762 kB

Practical experience of unified real estate taxation

V.A. Shishkina, N.I. Khusht
Annotation

Speaking about the need for a transition to a unified taxation in the Russian Federation, it is worth noting that a similar system of levying property taxes is also found abroad. But despite the wide experience of using the unified taxation of real estate in foreign countries, we cannot neglect the vast territory of our country and its features (for example, unequal levels of income of the population, the development of the real estate market, etc.) and say that it is possible to borrow the practice of unified taxation real estate without fear of risks. It is for this reason that the system being developed requires an experiment, according to which it is possible to draw conclusions about the efficiency of the tax uniformity system, assess the positive effect of its introduction and exclude possible negative consequences already at the stage of the experiment. This article is devoted to a similar experiment conducted over 10 years ago in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: real estate taxation, unified real estate taxation, cadastral valuation of real estate objects, tax base.
695 kB
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