Scientific works of KubSTUIssues → № 1, 2019/January

Table of contents for # 1, 2019/January

Study of operation parameters of the automatic excitation regulator of the synchronous generator MARELLI MJH800 MC6 with a power of 4180 kVa electric equipment

A.A. Biryukova, N.A. Medvedeva, M.I. Teslya, A.M. Oppokhodzhayev, D.I. Sidorov
Annotation

Advances in the development of small energy have made it possible to obtain economic benefits from the use of small power plants of their own needs, which are used to supply power to facilities in various industries. In this paper, we simulated the scheme of power supply of an industrial enterprise with its own power plant and investigated the parameters of parallel operation of the generator with the network at various settings of the automatic generator excitation regulator (ARV), namely, the exciter gain, the regulator gain, damping filter gain in Matlab Simulink.

Keywords: auxiliary power station, synchronous generator, automatic excitation regulator, exciter gain, regulator gain, damping filter gain.

Impact monitoring on the environment of the cheese factory

S.D. Burlaka, M.A. Skorokhod
Annotation

The article deals with the concept of the impact of the food industry on the natural environment. It is shown that the main type of pollutants in the production of dairy products are organic pollution. The substances formed during their oxidation have a negative impact on the flora and fauna of nearby water bodies. The assessment of the generated waste according to the hazard class is carried out and the main sources of waste generation are established.

Keywords: monitoring, waste, cheese factory, whey, dairy products.

Main causes of losses of oil products during storage at small-scale farms

S.D. Burlaka, K.D. Polevshchikova
Annotation

The article deals with topical issues of studying the causes of losses of valuable fuel during storage at the oil depot of a certain category. The environmental impact assessment during the operation of the tank farm was carried out. The article describes the main types and sources of emissions. Their quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out. The main causes of evaporation and loss of oil products are considered, the main ways to reduce these losses are proposed.

Keywords: tank farm, fuel, oil products, evaporation, tanks.

Research of dependence of the size of blind zones of a laser scanner from the height of the tool

K.V. Voronova, G.T. Akopyan, G.G. Shevchenko
Annotation

This article examines the dependence of the size of the blind zone of a laser scanner on the height of the tool. A comparison of theoretical calculations and the results obtained in practice. For this work, the Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner and the Leica Cyclone software were used.

Keywords: laser scanner, blind zone, tool height.

Influence of inservice training on decrease in level of occupational injuries

E.N. Vyskubova, O.V. Yakunkina, M.A. Khamula
Annotation

In this article the interrelation between training of personnel and decrease in level of traumatism at hazardous production facility is established, the list of all areas of certification on which precertification preparation on industrial safety is carried out is provided, stages of updating of educational and methodical material for the purpose of increase in effective management of educational process and independent work of personnel on development of questions of industrial safety are described, the analysis of occupational injuries for 2015 and 2018, taking into account results of the carried-out work for injury prevention is offered.

Keywords: occupational injuries, analysis of accidents, educational and methodical complex, inservice training, precertification preparation, human factor.

Membrane technologies in the treatment of waste water for businesses in the wine industry

E.N. Vyskubova, N.S. Devyatkina, M.A. Khamula
Annotation

All the enterprises of the food industry as a result of industrial activities generate a variety of quantitative and qualitative composition of the waste water, which is particularly complex at the enterprises of fermentation industries including alcohol factories and the enterprises of primary winemaking. Existing treatment methods at the plants do not purify the water to the required concentrations, and sometimes lead to secondary pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce new modern methods that were the most environmentally safe, cost-effective and resource-saving. The article deals with membrane technology, namely devoted to the development of new membranes that will be resistant to these contaminants.

Keywords: waste water, membrane purification methods, electrodialysis.

About increase in safety of work on PJSC Surgutnefte-gaz by results of control and supervising activity

I.A. Gelikh, D.V. Lomonosovа, V.I. Demin
Annotation

In article one of the leading oil companies of the country of PJSC Surgutneftegas is considered. On the basis of official statistics rather deep analysis of accident rate and occupational injuries from the death on objects of oil and gas production of the Russian Federation during 2010-2017 and at the enterprise – for 2016-2017 is carried out. By its results the main reasons for dangerous incidents are established. The conclusion is drawn that issues of increase in safety of work at the enterprise and in the industry remain relevant and today. The work which is carried out at the enterprise for increase in safety of work is rather in detail considered. However the conclusion is drawn that the role of control and supervising activity remains still relevant, especially internal audit of security status of work.
On the example of the shop of preparation and oil refining (TsNPP) in work internal audit of a condition of labor protection which showed existence of separate deviations from requirements of the specifications and technical documentation is booked. Actions for their elimination are offered. The conclusion is drawn that realization of the offered actions will allow to increase safety of work in TsNPP.

Keywords: oil refinery, accident, hazardous production facility, occupational injuries, labor protection, safety of work.

Development of measures for fire localization in reservoir park ILSKY refinery LLC

D.S. Grom, D.V. Lomonosovа, V.I. Demin
Annotation

The article contains a rather in-depth analysis of accidents and industrial injuries with a fatal outcome for the industrial petrochemical, oil and gas processing industry and oil product supply facilities of the Russian Federation for the period from 2007 to 2017. Based on its results, the main causes of accidents are identified. It was concluded that these industries still remain potentially dangerous and the number of accidents associated with fires in the PEP does not decrease, but increases. The general characteristics of LLC Ilsky Refinery and possible fires in its reservoir park are considered. A comparative analysis of fire extinguishing methods in tanks was carried out, on the basis of which it was proposed to use the extinguishing system existing at the enterprise in conjunction with the reservoir sublayer extinguishing system (DSS). Considered the principle of its work, proposed a schematic diagram. The paper presents the results of the calculation of the DSS for the RVS-3000 reservoir, which showed that for the implementation of the DSS, 3 high-porous foam generators of the “STURM-10” type using the special purpose frother PO-6CST are required. It was concluded that the proposed DSS will improve the efficiency of fire localization in the enterprise’s tank farm and, therefore, reduce the consequences of the accident.

Keywords: oil refinery, accident, reservoir park, hazardous production facility, industrial injuries, labor protection.

How does the savings effect in construction with the use of BIM technology

D.A. Gura, I.R. Postuzhnaya, I.G. Markovskii
Annotation

This article provides information on how the use of BIM-technology allows you to save money in the construction. BIM (Building Information Modeling or Building Information Model) – information modeling of a building or information model of a building. The article describes how to reduce labor, economic, material, time and other costs.

Keywords: BIM-technologies, BIM-model, design, construction, operation, economy.

Experimental studies of dust exhaust emissions of the concrete mixing plant

T.G. Korotkova, D.V. Demsky
Annotation

The data of laboratory studies of emissions of pollutants into the environment during the operation of concrete mixing plant (CMP) are given. The main source of emissions is the exhaust pipe of the ventilation system of the feed bins. It is established that the emissions contain: inorganic dust 70-20 % SiO2 and inorganic dust up to 20 % SiO2. There is no excess of allowed emissions, but at CMP there is a critical proximity of the actual release to the allowed one. In order to reduce the negative impact on the environment and payments for super-limited emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere, it was proposed to install a dust collecting cyclone CS-400 with a cleaning efficiency of 90% on a concrete mixing plant.

Keywords: pollution, dust emissions, concrete mixing plant, dust cyclone.

Regional method for accelerated determination soil plasticity limits

V.V. Denisenko, P.A. Lyashenko
Annotation

At present, the determination of the limits of plasticity of soils is done manually in accordance with GOST 5180, has many drawbacks and is laborious. A regional method for the accelerated determination of the plasticity limits of soils is described, which simplifies and speeds up the determination of the plasticity limits of soils, eliminates the influence of subjective factors on the results, and allows estimating errors of determining plasticity limits when testing a single soil sample, mechanizing and automating the process of determining the plasticity limits of soils.

Keywords: plasticity limits, soil moisture at the yield point, soil moisture at the rolling boundary.

Device for continuous sampling of soil samples

V.V. Denisenko, P.A. Lyashenko, E.V. Kravchenko, I.V. Budagov
Annotation

The known devices for soil sampling have structural and technological disadvantages that reduce the quality of soil sampling and the effectiveness of these devices. The authors have developed a device for continuous soil sampling, which allows continuous sampling of equal soil samples from different layers of horizons, mechanizing the soil sampling process and reducing physical costs, simplifying and cheapening soil sampling, and increasing the reliability of soil sampling results.

Keywords: soil, soil sampling, soil sampling, borehole, borehole wall, borehole bottom.

Statistics and reasons of accidents on objects oil and gas production

T.G. Korotkova, K.S. Bozhenova
Annotation

The statistics of accidents at oil and gas facilities was reviewed and their causes were analyzed according to the data presented in the annual reports on the activities of the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision. It has been established that the prevailing types of accidents at oil and gas production facilities are: open fountains and emissions; explosions and fires. The dynamics of accidents with the destruction of technical devices are not reduced, as a result of the destruction of which 2-3 people die on average. Similar effects cause thermal exposure and a fall from a height. There is a direct relationship between accidents and fatal injuries. The highest accident rate is in the Urals Federal District (Yekaterinburg), the Volga Federal District (Nizhny Novgorod) and the North-West Federal District (St. Petersburg). The greatest economic damage to the national economy from accidents at oil and gas production facilities was caused in 2013 and amounted to about 3 billion rubles. Among the main causes of accidents at oil and gas facilities can be identified failure and depressurization of technical devices, personnel errors associated with violation of the requirements of the organization and production of hazardous work and violation of industrial safety requirements

Keywords: oil and gas production, dynamics of accidents, causes of accidents, Anastasievsko-Troitskoe field.

The security of overhead cranes with high service life

O.V. Melekhina, M.A. Khamula, M.V. Lomov
Annotation

The annual increase in vehicles requires increased safety and uninterrupted operation of bridges, overpasses, overpasses and other transport facilities. Installation of bridge structures is carried out using cranes. Metal structures of bridge type cranes, which are in operation for a long time, are subject to corrosion, and especially intensively – in the absence of proper care or in violation of the protective film (color). For timely detection of hazardous processes it is proposed to use flaw detection methods. Since the frequency of inspections is once a year, the current status of the bridge crane remains unknown. To prevent accidents, it is proposed to use internal monitoring of the state of cranes.

Keywords: metal Structures, lifting mechanism, accidents, operation.

About systems automated traffic measurement control

D.G. Nazarov, D.A. Gura
Annotation

The primary task of ensuring the safety of train traffic is to reduce the incidence of defects and accidents related to the state of the upper structure of the route of his plan and profile on sections of high-speed highways. Monitoring includes a complex of multifunctional control systems and the maintenance of a track complex of train traffic safety using advanced technical means and methods of technical diagnostics, ensuring safe movement of trains with established speeds. The article analyzes the most modern methods for diagnosing the state of a railway track.

Keywords: railways, monitoring, automated systems, traffic safety.

Environmental safety of the process of capital repair oil and gas wells in the region

O.O. Ratkovskaya, L.A. Pashinyan
Annotation

During the operation of each oil or gas well, as any technical device, requires preventive maintenance. Federal regulations and safety rules in the oil and gas industry prescribe before carrying out any preventive and repair work to muffle the working well (to fill with killing liquid) and to establish the anti-discharge equipment. The well is filled with killing fluid to create the necessary back pressure on the productive formation. After the repair work there is a problem of waste disposal. Such waste includes jamming fluid. For its utilization the mobile treatment plant is offered. The use of this installation in the process of overhaul of oil and gas wells is an effective and relatively economical way, especially in depleted fields. This approach will reduce the negative impact on the environment, as well as reduce the economic costs of enterprises.

Keywords: drilling fluid, killing fluid, mobile treatment plant, decanter centrifuge, coagulant, flocculant, expanded clay.

BIM-technologies: designing, construction, operation

T.A. Romanova, I.R. Postuzhnaya, I.G. Markovskii
Annotation

This article provides an overview of BIM-technologies. BIM (Building Information Modeling or Building Information Model) – information modeling of a building or information model of a building. In addition, the article talks about how information technology is used to design and construct objects. Information is provided on how to reduce construction costs and operating time, how to improve the operational properties of building objects and their life cycle with the help of BIM-technologies.

Keywords: BIM-technologies, BIM-model, design, construction, geodesy, operation.

Research of the operation mode of the avtomatichsky regulator of excitation of the GE Jenbacher JMS 920 synchronous generator of captive power station of the industrial enterprise

D.I. Sidorov, G.A. Zakharov, N.YU. Varchenko, A.S. Kolesnikov, D.V. Wroblewski
Annotation

Achievements in the field of small-scale energy have made it possible to obtain economic benefits from the use of power plants for own needs, which are used for power supply facilities in various industries. This paper presents a simulation model of the power supply scheme of an industrial enterprise with a power plant of its own needs with a gas-piston generator set (synchronous generator). The parameters of the power plant at different gain factors: exciter, regulator, damping filter in Matlab/Simulink medium are investigated.

Keywords: power plant of own needs, gas-piston generator set, regulator gain Ka, exciter gain Ke, damping filter gain Kf.

The main factors for reliable operation of electrical equipment of drilling rigs

V.V. Engovatova, A.I. Gaidamashko, A.P. Stepanyan
Annotation

The classification of drilling rigs indicating the use of electric energy, which is necessary not only to power the main power and auxiliary units of the drilling rig, but also to power the circuits of automatic control and control of the operating parameters of all units and systems of the installation, as well as for lighting jobs and territory. The conditions that ensure the reliability of the equipment are given. The most dangerous factors causing failures in the operation of the equipment and threatening the life of the working personnel of the drilling rig are listed. The reasons for which all equipment and metal structures of the installation must be reliably grounded, and work during a thunderstorm is prohibited. Devices of protection of systems of power supply against short circuits and overloads are shown. In article it is noted that not all failures of electric equipment are a consequence of influence of climatic and natural conditions, a consequence of natural wear of the equipment. Special attention is paid to the presence of the human factor. It is indicated that only in the presence of qualified technical personnel is possible competent maintenance of electrical equipment and electrical networks, which will ensure reliable and uninterrupted operation of each drilling rig.

Keywords: drilling rig, reliability of electrical equipment, grounding of electrical equipment, failures of electrical equipment.

Yong generation insight into blogging as career

L.S. Burlachenko
Annotation

The post-industrial era is characterized by the emergence of new types of activity, which eventually acquire all the characteristics of a professional one, which makes it necessary to study and analyze them. One of these activities is blogging. Since a blogger is not an officially recognized professional activity in Russia, the purpose of the article was to study the representation of blogging in the mass consciousness. This article explores the understanding of bloggership and bloggers by university students.

Keywords: blogger, blogging, professional activities, social networks, blog, profession.

The world practice of introduction of energy management systems: results of certification

I.Т. Zaika, S.А. Belai
Annotation

The problem of growth of the level of energy consumption in industrial enterprises is considered. The data on the number of certificates for energy management systems in the framework of the project “ISO Survey” at the level of countries and industries are analyzed. Attention is focused on the relevance of the introduction of energy management systems of metallurgical production in connection with its high energy intensity.

Keywords: energy management, energy consumption, metallurgical production, energy efficiency, energy management system, certification, fuel and energy resources, efficiency, sustainable development.

To the question about the main aspects of the understanding of entrepreneurship as a historical phenomenon

M.A. Lavrentevа
Annotation

The article deals with issues related to the development and formation of entrepreneurship as a historical phenomenon. It is emphasized that the flourishing of entrepreneurship begins in the middle ages. With the emergence of capitalism, the activities of entrepreneurs are becoming more professional and civilized. At the end of the XVIII century − the beginning of XIX century the joint-stock form of the organization of business activity begins to develop actively. The article says that the modern history of entrepreneurship in the Russian Federation begins in 1991, when the transition from a planned to a market economy began. Business activity has received a legal status, there were different forms of ownership, revived the right of private property. It is concluded that in modern Russia, the attention of the state to the problems of economic activity is clearly traced, attempts are being made to eliminate legal gaps that inevitably arise in the process of progressive development of the economy.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, history, economic activity, economy, property.

Krasnodar krai: history of entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector

M.A. Lavrentevа
Annotation

The article deals with issues related to the development and formation of entrepreneurship in the Krasnodar region, the emergence of competition, as well as innovative innovations in this area. It is emphasized that if we talk about small business, the Krasnodar region belongs to the subjects of the Russian Federation with a developed sphere of entrepreneurship. The article says that the Krasnodar region is a leader in agro-industrial production in the Russian Federation and occupies a leading position in the field of small business, whose representatives carry out the following activities: wholesale and retail trade via the Internet seedlings of fruit trees, shrubs, roses, grapes and onion flowers. It is concluded that at present the state is attentive to the problems of economic activity and tries to eliminate the legal gaps that inevitably arise in the process of progressive development of the economy.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Krasnodar region, wholesale and retail trade, competition.

The development of new business activities of real estate agencies of Krasnodar by the example of LLC “Nadezhda”

M.A. Lavrentevа
Annotation

The article deals with issues related to the development and formation of new activities of real estate agencies, the emergence of competition among real estate services, as well as innovative innovations in the real estate market. It is emphasized that real estate activity in the Russian Federation is carried out in conditions of weak legal regulation. According to researchers, realtors use the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and various reference materials. In the legislation of our country there is no clear law on real estate activity. Some subjects of the Russian Federation independently developed such legislative acts, for example,“The law on real estate activity in St. Petersburg”. The article says that the main contingent of consumers of real estate services are individuals. Consumers of real estate company services have the right to choose a realtor or a company freely on the market, to check the powers of the realtor, to receive from the realtor all the information on the transaction, to apply to special bodies on the violation of his rights as a consumer, to monitor the fulfillment of the contract by the real estate company. It is concluded that the main danger for real estate activity in the Russian Federation is the economic crisis, which does not contribute to the further development of the real estate market, although it provides an opportunity to win in the competition due to professionalism and established contacts.

Keywords: real estate agencies, legal regulation, economic crisis, competition.

Optimization of portfolio securities

J.S. Nosova, E.A. Pozdnyakov
Annotation

The article is devoted to the optimization of the securities portfolio. Now the problem is urgent, because in conditions of economic crisis the literate management of investment activity in the state-wide, and within the framework of individual economic agents is one of the most important issues. The article gives types of portfolio securities, meaning and character of portfolio, types of potential investors. In addition the article deals with the gist of portfolio optimization and management. One of the most main points is the explanation of «golden rule of investing». Also the article offers recommendations for construction an optimal, taking into account the investor’s personal projections of portfolio securities. The basic model for the optimization of the portfolio developed by G. Markowitz. In connection with the research is reflected in the peer-reviewed article in a timely and relevant.

Keywords: securities, investment portfolio, portfolio securities, portfolio optimization, diversified portfolio, return on assets, the level of risk, portfolio management, profitability.

Development of a safety monitoring procedure at a road-building enterprise using ISO 45001 standard

V.I. Orlovskaya, V.V. Novikov
Annotation

This article discusses the most common accidents occurring in a road-building enterprise. Identified the need to strengthen control over occupational safety in the enterprise and adjust the management system of labor protection. A brief information is given on the international standard ISO 45001. A procedure has been developed for monitoring occupational safety in a road-building enterprise using the standard ISO 45001, as a result of the introduction of which it is planned to reduce industrial injuries at the enterprise by 40%.

Keywords: occupational safety, health protection, occupational injuries, accident, control over labor safety.

Improving the legislative and regulatory legal basis in the field of cadastral assessment

A.S. Pechelintseva
Annotation

Currently, there is an actual problem of cadastral valuation of land settlements, which is expressed in a periodic dispute between taxpayers and the state on the provisions of property taxation. The main issue is the value of the cadastral value of the property as the main value when calculating the annual contributions. No less important is how to change the cadastral value of the object, if the result does not suit one of the parties. We set the goal to study the proposed innovations in the field of regulatory regulation of state cadastral valuation proposed by the legislator by means of an analytical study. The task of the work is to study the advantages and disadvantages of the recommended changes. The object of study is the total value of the cadastral value. The procedure and possible cases of changing the results of determining the cadastral value shall be agreed. The degree of relevance of the cost information will be periodically checked using a specially calculated indicator. The value of the cadastral value will change in case of exceeding the threshold mark of the indicator, except in the case of a determined cadastral value in the amount of the market value. A list of changes in cadastral value will be recorded. The types of errors made in determining the cadastral value are established. A description of the planned regulatory changes in the field of cadastral valuation. It is concluded that the proposed stages of the change in the cadastral methodology will make it possible to more effectively identify and correct errors in the calculation of the cadastral value.

Keywords: cadastral value, real estate market index, paid transaction, federal state supervision, single error, system error, data distortion, hidden factor.

The demand for young specialists on the labor market of Russia

I.A. Khronova, V. D. Zazhigina
Annotation

The article presents the results of an empirical study of the demand for young professionals in the Russian labor market through the use of a sociological survey among students of the Kuban state technological University. The authors were also interested in the questions of self-satisfaction with the respondents ‘ education and possible applicability in the labor market. In the course of the survey, the motivational reasons for the election of the official and shadow labor market of young professionals were analyzed. With the help of the author’s research questionnaire and formulated goals, the features of the studied sample expressed in relation to young professionals to labor violations in the shadow labor market; motivational interest in official employment; acceptance of the fact of the shadow labor market and its stability; awareness of the need for knowledge and possession of information to protect their labor rights; understanding of their professional demand, and its direct dependence on work experience and personal qualities, and other characteristics were determined; the advantage of the material component when choosing areas of the labor market. In the course of the survey, the answers have led to the conclusion that the young specialist receiving education today, preferably choose the sector of the labor market, where wages will be higher, even with the awareness of violations of labor legislation. At the same time, the young specialist is little trained in the field of protection of their labor rights, and does not see the need to combat the shadow labor market.

Keywords: young specialists, labor market, shadow labor market, self-employment, employment.

Some aspects of documentation ensuring in state preschool institutions in the history of Russia

I.A. Khronova, D.S. Rezneva
Annotation

This article focuses on the documents related to the formation and development of pre-school education in Russia. Some questions concerning educational processes in the period of Baptism of Russia to the present time are touched upon. The first specialized monographs regulating ethical behavior of children in society are analyzed. The stages of formation of preschool education in our country are analyzed. The opening of the first free kindergartens and kindergartens for deaf and dumb children is also mentioned. Examples of specific documents are given, and the dependence of their modification on certain tasks and goals of the state. The article describes the situation of Soviet children’s education during the Second World war. Different approaches of the state to the issue of preschool education in different historical time periods are shown. Also, the issue of children’s education during the collapse of the Soviet Union. A comparison between the Soviet system of pre-school education and modern standards of education through the analysis of legal acts. The importance of state regulation of the field of education of the younger generation is shown.

Keywords: education of the young generation, public preschool education, children's educational institutions, normative legal acts on children's education.

Closed form for the sum of the infinite series similar to one telescopic series

I.V. Tereshchenko
Annotation

Based on the particular example of calculating the sum in the closed form of a convergent series whose terms form a telescoping series, a family of such infinite telescopic series was found and their sum was calculated. It is shown that the convergence of these series is directly related to the possibility of calculating the limit of some numerical sequence whose limit can be calculated by treating it as the limit of the ratio of some infinitesimal functions, calculated by the L’Hospital rule. The form of the general series is quite complicated, so it is surprising that it is possible to compute the sum of such a series in a closed form without using complicated summation methods, such as, for example, summing series using the residue theorem. The sums of the calculated infinite series are absent in the well-known handbooks of Prudnikov A.P., Brychkov Yu.A., Marichev O.I. and Gradshteyn I.S and Ryzhik I.M.

Keywords: infinite series, telescopic series, sum of the series, closed form, L'Hopital's rule.

Study of the effectiveness of existing antidiabetic methods

E.A. Strelchenko
Annotation

Diabetes is a disease in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired. The number of people with diabetes worldwide is increasing. Previously, people from developed countries suffered from this disease, but now this disease is increasingly observed in residents of low-and middle-income countries. Malnutrition and sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of diabetes, which has serious health consequences and can lead to premature death. Since diabetes can not be cured completely, experts are constantly developing various techniques and ways to delay the onset of the disease or to cope with it so that even a diabetic person can lead a healthy lifestyle. Thus, the article is devoted to the study of various techniques, including the advantages of the Mediterranean diet, when a person takes certain macronutrients. Since the complexity of the diet can not be individualized, it is necessary to consult with a nutritionist before starting any dietary intake. This shows that implementing a healthy diet along with lifestyle modifications can help manage diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes, therapeutic diet therapy, mediterranean diet, training on diabetic self-control.

Study of the effect of vitamin C on human physiological systems

E.A. Strelchenko
Annotation

Vitamin C is an important dietary nutrient for the biosynthesis of catecholamines, L-carnitine, cholesterol, amino acids and some peptide hormones. Vitamin C is indirectly involved in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The effect of vitamin C on the body of a sick person does not have enough confirmed and documented facts. The article reviews the effect of vitamin C on human physiological systems and the clinical consequences of its use.

Keywords: vitamin C, antioxidant, cardiovascular disease, scurvy, anticarcinogen.

Prospects for the use of sweeteners as anti-caring additives in food

E.A. Strelchenko
Annotation

Artificial sweeteners, also called sugar substitutes or low-calorie sweeteners, are non-calorie high-intensity sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners can be found in beverages, medicines and oral hygiene products. Since they have an intense sweet taste, there is a possibility of reducing the use of sugar, which will lead to a reduction in calorie consumption. The availability of a variety of safe sugar substitutes is an advantage for consumers, as it allows food producers to produce a variety of sweet foods and beverages that are safe for dental health and the General well-being of the consumer.

Keywords: artificial sweeteners, aspartame, sugar substitute, sucrose, xylitol.

Instrumental express-method of definition of indicators of quality of seeds of flax on the basis of NMR

O.S. Agafonov, S.M. Prudnikov, E.P. Viktorova
Annotation

The article presents the results of the study of nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of protons contained in flax seed oil. On the basis of the conducted researches the analytical dependence between NMR – characteristics of protons of flax seed oil and mass fraction of linolenic acid in flax seed oil is established. The error in determining the mass fraction of linolenic acid does not exceed 5 %. The developed Express method allows to simultaneously determine the oil content and moisture content of flax seeds, as well as the mass fraction of linolenic acid in flax seed oil.

Keywords: oil flax, Express method, linolenic acid, oil content, humidity, nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics.

A study of indicators of the quality of the lecithins with the use of NMR-AnalyzeR AMV-1006М

E.P. Viktorova, O.S. Agafonov, S.M. Prudnikov, T.A. Shakhrai
Annotation

The efficiency of application of the nuclear magnetic relaxation method implemented on the NMR analyzer AMV-1006M to determine one of the main indicators of the quality of liquid sunflower lecithins-acid number. As an analytical parameter, the values of the amplitude of NMR signals of soap protons formed as a result of neutralization of free fatty acids and acidic forms of phospholipids by an alkaline reagent – an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. It is shown that the developed method for determining the acid number can improve the accuracy and reproducibility of the analysis results, reduce the time of the analysis and the cost of its implementation.

Keywords: lecithins, quality indicators, acid number, method, nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, sodium hydroxide, amplitude of NMR signals of soap protons.

Natural flavors in the production of mayonnaise products

N.V. Glumova, E.YU. Bogodist-Timofeeva, E.S. Nozhko
Annotation

The formulations of mayonnaise and mayonnaise sauces 30 … 40% fat content with the introduction of the aqueous phase of hydrolates of aromatic plants. Hydrolates perform the functions of natural flavors and antioxidants in the formulations.

Keywords: mayonnaise, mayonnaise sauce, oily and combination.

Import-substituting machinery and technology maltobiose industry

V.V. Derevenko, A.V. Didenko, A.D. Novozhenova
Annotation

Developed import-substituting machinery and technology of processing of oil of seeds of sunflower and rapeseed branch of a seedcoat before extracting the oil, and also some seeds of melons and gourds: pumpkins, melons and watermelons. For the collapse of seeds, a centrifugal rushka is created, which provides an effective single blow, which reduces the oiling of the husk. Branch of a seedcoat of rosanky is in aerocapture in vertical air flow. For oil extraction, a double-screw press extruder is offered, which ensures the production of high-quality oil and granulated cake, which is supplied for extraction. Highly effective devices for carrying out processes of enzyme hydration, chemisorption refining, bleaching, winterization and deodorization of oils are created.

Keywords: technological equipment for hulling, separation of rosanky, extraction of oil, refining oil.

Features of extraction of valuable components from ethermosilic raw material, liquefied and compressed carbon dioxide

G.I. Kasyanov, E.YU. Mishkevich
Annotation

The aim of the work is to evaluate the options for the recovery of valuable components from the essential oil raw material by liquefied or fluid carbon dioxide. The possibilities of carbon dioxide in the pre and supercritical states to extract the necessary target components from thermolabile raw materials are determined. Carbon dioxide has a critical pressure of 7,38 MPa and a critical temperature of 31,1 ° C. The objects of the study include an anthol-containing plant raw materials: anise, baden (star anise) and fennel; installations for pre – and supercritical extraction and CO2-extracts of anise, badyan and fennel. The intermediate results of the study include the determination of the yield of extractive substances from anethole-containing raw materials with carbon dioxide in different phase states. To assess the qualitative composition of CO2-extracts, the spectrophotometric analysis method in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum was used. The performed research allows to draw a conclusion about the expediency of obtaining extracts of two types, depending on the requirements of consumers for their chemical composition. The recommendations of the industry on the supply to the market before or supercritical extracts of anise, badyan and fennel, in accordance with the requests of consumers, are prepared.

Keywords: essential oils, subcritical extraction, supercritical extraction, СО2-extracts.

Complex processing of waste oil and fat production

S.K. Mustafayev, E.O. Smichagin, O.V. Smichagin
Annotation

The main volume of oil and fat waste in the production of vegetable oils are waste cleaning oilseeds, spent clays and filter powders. There are developed methods for their separate disposal. However, they have not received wide practical application and the majority of oil and fat waste disposed of in landfills, creating a fire hazard and environmental problems. Conducted at the Department of technology of fats KubSTU research allowed to develop and jointly with the specialists of “Union” to introduce into production an innovative technology that allows to jointly process waste cleaning oilseeds and waste clays or filter powders to produce feed products and technical vegetable oils. The technological regulations including know how on the received Eurasian patent and installation with use of the improved equipment of the Russian production are developed on technology.

Keywords: oil and fat waste, methods of utilization, secondary oil raw materials, extrusion, pressing, production plant.

Perspectives of pulsed electric field application for extraction processes of oil contain materials

I.A. Shorstky, E.P. Koshevoi
Annotation

The perspectives of pulsed electric field (PEF) application for the extraction processes of oil-contain materials considered in current paper. Evaluation of PEF treatment efficiency for extraction process of sunflower cake was carried out according to the following criteria: oil yield, index of disintegrated (destroyed) cells, diffusion coefficient. Additionally the main quality parameters of extracted oil after treatment were determine by standard methods. It was found that PEF processing at the preliminary preparation stage allowed to increase the yield of oil up to 3,5%, while the diffusion coefficient increased from D = 9,8943E-12 to 1,5504E-11 m2/s. The number of pre-opened cells increased by 42,9% after treatment by PEF. It was determined that the PEF has a slight effect on oil quality parameters (P> 0,05), which is primarily due to the nature of the applied pulses and, as a consequence, to the absence of heating in the treatment zone. The obtained results can be used for upscaling technology of electrophysical processing by using pulsed electric field treatment for the intensification of mass transfer processes.

Keywords: pulsed electric field; mass-exchange processes; extraction kinetics; Diffusion coefficient; disintegration index; sunflower.

IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCING TOMATOUM OIL

A.M. GADZHIEVA
Annotation

The Republic of Dagestan occupies one of the first places in the country for the cultivation and processing of tomatoes in open and closed ground. The Government of Dagestan has adopted and successfully implements innovative projects for the development of vegetable growing. The scientific teams and universities in the Republic are developing and implementing advanced technologies for growing and processing tomatoes. With significant volumes of tomato growing, there is no wasteless technology for processing them in the Republic. The author formulates the problem of complex processing of secondary resources of tomato production, with a priority on obtaining delicatessen from tomato seeds. In the work a preference is given to the method of isolating seeds of tomatoes from the pulp by cold wiping according to the method of Professor Skorikova Yu.G. The aim of the research is to improve the technology for obtaining tomato oil from tomato seeds, for which purpose the tasks of analyzing the current state of tomato growing in various regions of Dagestan in open and closed ground, reviewing modern ways of processing tomato raw materials, improving the methods for obtaining oil from tomato seeds and researching its physico- chemical properties. As intermediate and main results of the research, data are presented on the preparation of tomato seeds for processing for oil, as well as studies of the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of tomato oil. In the conclusions, the author summarizes the results of studies on obtaining delicate tomato oil and offers industry recommendations for mastering and implementing the results of the work.

Keywords: tomato cultivation, tomato varieties, research methods, tomato seeds, cold pressing, extraction.
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